Pakistan's bowlers struck early to reduce Bangladesh to 69 for four at lunch on the opening day of the first Test in Chittagong on Friday.
At the break at the Zahur Ahmed Chowdhury Stadium, Mushfiqur Rahim was on five and Liton Das on 10.
Shaheen Afridi, Hasan Ali, Faheem Ashraf and Sajid Khan each claimed a wicket to put the hosts in trouble after Bangladesh captain Mominul Haque won the toss and elected to bat first.
Afridi set the tone for Pakistan with a gem of a delivery in the fifth over that rose sharply to glance off opener Saif Hasan's bat to Abid Ali at short leg. He made 14.
Hasan then trapped the other opener Shadman Hossain leg-before for 14.
Skipper Mominul fell soon afterwards, scoring just six as Sajid spun one sharply to take an edge that was gladly accepted by wicketkeeper Mohammad Rizwan.
The umpire initially declared Mominul not out but the decision was overruled on review.
Najmul Hossain got off the mark with a four but he too perished soon cutting a Faheem delivery straight to Sajid at point.
Pakistan handed batsman Abdullah Shafique a Test debut while Yasir Ali was making a Test debut for Bangladesh in the two-match series.
Head to Head
Pakistan have played three series in Bangladesh and won five of the six Tests the two teams have played. Pakistan's last win came in Dhaka, in May 2015, when they trounced Bangladesh by 328 runs.
Azhar Ali and Mushfiqur Rahim are the only players from either sides who are still playingh
Azhar had scored 226 and 25, while Mushfiq scored 12 and zero as Azhar walked away with the player of the match, which will also be remembered for centuries from Younis Khan (148) and Asad Shafiq (107) as well as match figures of 36.3-7-128-7 by Yasir Shah, who will miss the series as he is yet to recover from a thumb injury he sustained during the National T20.
Pakistan: Babar Azam (captain), Mohammad Rizwan (vice-captain, wicketkeeper), Abdullah Shafique, Abid Ali, Azhar Ali, Faheem Ashraf, Fawad Alam, Hasan Ali, Nauman Ali, Sajid Khan and Shaheen Shah Afridi
Bangladesh: Mominul Haque (captain), Shadman Islam, Saif Hasan, Najmul Hossain, Mushfiqur Rahim, Liton Das, Nurul Hasan, Mehidy Hasan Miraz, Nayeem Hasan, Taijul Islam, Ebadot Hossain Chowdhury, Abu Jayed Chowdhury, Yasir Ali, Mahmudul Hasan, Rejaur Rahman.